Article 6:
Details of how BTTPs Explain Gravity, Inertia & Angular Momentum

This is a supplementary article. To go to the main introductory article about Stationary Energy Theory, and its links to other supplementary articles, please click here.


In the introductory article, I mentioned that if two opposing “basic particles,” one a part of a piece of matter in our Universe (a BP), and one a BTTP, traveling backward in time, are not on a direct collision course they will repel each other and pass by each other, and that these repulsions push particles of matter toward each other, creating the force of gravity. Let’s look what happens in this situation if there are two objects, of mass m1 and m2 in our Universe (going forward in time) each of which consists of a number of “basic particles” bonded to each other, so that the bonding forces cancel each other out, or are forces of such close range that there is no significant attraction or repulsion between m1 and m2 at the distance they are apart.

The attractive strong and weak nuclear forces and electromagnetic forces between basic particles (BPs) hold together the structures of matter, and as a result do, in fact, resolve themselves over very tiny distances. This theory proposes, however, that the repulsive forces between BTTPs and BPs, though they are the same forces operating in reverse, can operate at much greater distances, since these repelling forces do not resolve themselves within the structure of matter, but operate between two complementary domains of matter: forward through time and backward through time.

Based on this, let’s look at what happens when two basic particles traveling backward in time (BTTPs), p1 and p2, are on a collision course with m1 and m2.

If m2 were not there, p1 could collide with a basic particle in m1, and a photon of energy would be produced. But because of the presence of m2, p1 is repelled, be it ever so slightly, by m2, and it will shift direction slightly, and start to be repelled by m1 as well, in a direction perpendicular to its backward travel through time, and pass m1 on the side away from m2. p2 will likewise pass m2 on the side away from m1. As they are passing, p1 will repel m1, and since it is closer to it than p2 is, p1’s repulsion of m1 toward m2 will be greater than p2’s repulsion of it in the opposite direction. So there will be a net force pushing m1 toward m2. Likewise there will be a net force pushing m2 toward m1. This force is gravity. Figure 6 illustrates it:

The more particles are involved, the stronger the force will be, but since there is close to an equal density everywhere of the particles traveling backward in time (or, as elsewhere discussed, they have a common causality with forward through time particles of matter), the strength of the attraction will be proportional to the mass of m1 and the mass of m2, and be inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the particles in most (but not all) situations found in our Universe. (For a discussion of why the attractive force in this situation should depend on the inverse square of the distance between the particles, but the angles of deflection of BTTPs should vary with the simple inverse of the distance from the objects that are repelling them, see Appendix B.)

In this case, the force attracting pieces of matter of mass m1 and m2 at distance “d” from each other could be expressed as:

F = IGm1m2/d˛             .           .           .           .           .           .           .           (15)

This force would be an attractive force between objects with mass in our Universe. It is, of course, the force of gravity, and G is the “universal” constant of gravity. “I” is a Gravitational Intensity Factor I have introduced, which within our solar sysem is extremely close to being = 1. This is not, however, a step toward the derivation of this theory's equation of gravity. That derivation will be done in Article 15.


A body at rest or in uniform motion will have an equal number of backward-through-time particles (BTTPs) being deviated on all sides of it, so there will be no net force on it. But as soon as there is an attempt to change its speed, there will be more repulsion from the BTTPs against the direction of the acceleration, and less repulsion from the BTTPs in the direction of the attempted acceleration, and this will cause a net force to resist the acceleration, that works in just the same way as the deflection of BTTPs causes gravitational force. Since it operates cumulatively on all the “basic particles” in the object, this net force will be in proportion to its mass. This is, this theory suggests, the reason why bodies have inertia and momentum, and that the force needed to accelerate a body is proportional to its mass (m) and to the acceleration applied (a), as is described by Newton’s formula for force: F = ma.

Angular Momentum

A Spinning body also has angular momentum for the same reason, and resists changing the direction in which its axis of rotation points because it would disrupt the flow of BTTPs past the spinning body, causing a great acceleration with even a small change in direction of the axis of rotation, because of the high speed of rotation. It should be noted that the gyroscopic effect of a spinning body will tend to keep its axis of rotation aligned at a constant angle to the direction of BTTPs flowing past it, rather than with a particular direction in space, though these are usually very close to being the same, because, as we will see later, the angle of deflection of BTTPs around even quite large objects like the Earth is quite tiny.

The lines of deflection of BTTPs around a massive object like the sun or Earth are the same as the “curvature of space” around such objects in general relativity. And experiments have shown that a gyroscope keeps its axis of rotation at a constant angle to these lines of curvature of space, rather than in a fixed direction in space. Stationary Energy Theory, like General Relativity, requires the existence of this phenomenon. In addition, though, Stationary Energy Theory explains why it happens.

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