Article 5:
Basic Particles in Stationary Energy Theory, Including the Math

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In the energy releasing collisions between Basic Particles (BPs) and Backward Through Time Particles (BTTPs), the mass of a single colliding particle would have to be small enough that the energy in the least energetic possible photon of electromagnetic radiation would correspond to its mass. Then the simultaneous collisions of multiple particles (possibly in clusters) would lead to the release of higher energy photons. If we call the energy in the least energetic possible photon Emin, then the mass of this particle, the “Basic Particle” (BP) would be:

mbp = Emin/c˛    .           .           .           .           .           .           .           .         (12)

The least energetic electromagnetic radiation (EMR) known appears to be ultra low frequency radio waves with a frequency of about 1 mHz (0.001 Hz). The Planck-Einstein Equation, E = hf, gives the energy of photons emitted at a particular frequency, “f,” where “h” is Planck’s Constant (6.62 x 10-34 Joules.s). For this least energetic photon, with a frequency of 0.001 Hz:

Emin = hf = 6.62 x 10-34 x 0.001 = 6.62 x 10-37 Joules    .           .           .           (13)

Substituting this in (12) we get the mass of a basic particle:

mbp = Emin/c˛ = 6.62 x 10-37 J/(3 x 108 m/s)2 = 6.62 x 10-37/(9 x 1016) = 0.7 x 10-53 kg

So, to the nearest order of magnitude the mass of a “basic particle” is:

mbp = 10-53 kg              .           .           .           .           .           .           .         (14)

If EMR with a frequency less than 0.001Hz is discovered, this mass would have to be lowered further to take account of it, but it is a useful figure to work with.

Since the mass of an electron is about 10-30 kg (9.1 x 10-31 kg), this means an electron would be made up of about 1023 “basic particles.”

These “basic particles” (BPs) would presumably be the smallest subatomic particles out of which all other particles are made. Since they would be the basic building blocks of matter, this theory proposes that they have electromagnetic attractive forces between them when they are traveling forward in time together that would, when they are combined in various ways to form the various fundamental particles of Nature, explain the strong and weak nuclear forces and electromagnetic forces of Quantum Theory. I also propose that when they are traveling backward through time (when they are BTTPs), these particles repel the same kind of particles going forward in time (BPs), as they approach each other and pass.

Because of this repulsion, it would only be particles approaching each other on a direct collision course that would actually collide and release their mass as energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation (EMR), as particles even slightly off to one side would repel each other and pass clear of each other. Since excited atoms produce EMR equally well wherever they are in space, it is clear that these particles traveling backward through time must either be aligned by some common causality with matter in our Universe, or be present in close to an equal density everywhere in their domain.

This explains how photons of EMR are created at a source, and carry away an amount of mass from the source equal to E/c2. Light waves in the visible spectrum have a frequency of about 1015 Hz, which would require about 1018 BPs within an electron to switch quantum states to the Universal Energy Field to become one photon of light. This is just one particle in 100,000 within an electron, which would reduce the mass of the electron by 0.001%.

This theory thus predicts that electrons in higher (more energetic) orbitals would weigh slightly more than those in lower orbitals, in proportion to the energy of the photon emitted when the electron moves between the orbitals. This tiny weight loss would presumably not adversely affect the function of the electron, and may even be tied in with its function. (For a detailed explanation of how the interaction of Basic Particles and BTTPs is in accord with Quantum Theory, please see Appendix A.)

In opaque or semi-opaque media, light photons are absorbed and re-emitted by atoms as described by Quantum Theory. The re-emitted photon is not usually of the same energy or propagated in the same direction. This theory proposes that the apparent reduction of the speed of light in transparent media, such as air or glass, is due to photons being effectively “stationary” (with respect to matter) for a small amount of time as they are being absorbed and re-emitted by atoms in the media. This would allow the photons, while they are moving, to be moving at exactly the speed of light. In the case of transparent media, however, the process of absorption and re-emission would have to be such that most of the re-emitted photons would be of the same energy and approximately the same direction of propagation as the absorbed photons. This absorption and re-emission is required by this theory because, under it, matter/energy must be in one or other of its quantum states (stationary or moving at the speed of light) and not somewhere in-between. Structures of matter are, according this theory, transparent to particular frequencies when the energy of those frequencies correspond to energy transitions within electrons that cause absorbed photons to be rapidly re-emitted in close to the same direction and with the same frequency. Consequently, this theory predicts that this kind of very rapid absorption and re-emission takes place in transparent media, and that, with the right experiment, it may be possible to verify that it is happening.

One thing in favor of the absorption-re-emission theory for the slowing of the speed of light in media is that the alternate theory has a major problem with it. This alternate theory is that light travels slower in a media such as water or glass because the electrical permittivity of the media is higher than the permittivity of free space, and the 'resistance' caused by this makes light and other electromagnetic radiation travel more slowly through it, at a speed that is dependent on the permittivity. The problem with this is that there is a fixed permittivity at a specific temperature for a given media (in proportion to the dielectric constant for the media), which means all EMR should travel at the same speed through it at a given temperature (c = 1/√μoε where μo is the magnetic permiability of free space, a fundamental constant, and ε is the electrical permittivity of the media). And we know this is not the case. Light of different frequencies travels at different speeds through glass and other media, which is what allows light to be dispersed into its spectrum of colors when it passes through a prism or through water droplets to form a rainbow. This is not a problem for the absorption-re-emission theory, however, as it is easy to see how there would be scope for the energy (frequency) of light to influence how long atoms would hold on to the energy of an absorbed photon as matter before re-emitting it as a photon of energy.

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