Article 3:
How Stationary Energy Theory Avoids the “Twins Paradox”

This is a supplementary article. To go to the main introductory article about Stationary Energy Theory, and its links to other supplementary articles, please click here.

One happy consequence of the somewhat “absolute” way of measuring speed that is required for calculating time dilation in Stationary Energy Theory is that the “Twins Paradox” that plagues special and general relativity, and has never been explained in a convincing way, doesn’t even arise. The twin who accelerates off to a distant star (or the muon in a particle accelerator) after a while closely approaches the speed of light as measured against the “stationary points” he (or it) passes. Time passes more slowly for the fast traveling twin (or muon) according the Lorentz transformation for time intervals (Equation 8, in the Simple Time Dilation Derivation article, Article 2). The same is true for the return journey of the traveling twin (and the muon heading back around the circular path of the particle accelerator). Again he is traveling close to the speed of light with respect to the “stationary points” he passes through, so time again slows down for him. Meanwhile, the other twin on Earth (or the scientist observing the muon) has continued to travel at the same very low speeds (compared to the speed of light) that he always has done in relation to the “stationary points” he is passing through, so time continues to travel at the normal rate for him on Earth, that includes little or no time dilation. On return, the traveling twin’s clock will show much less time has passed for him than for his brother.

It is not clear, however, what the traveling twin would be returning to. For small amounts of time dilation, it would seem likely that the 3-D space "surface" of our universe would be stretchy enough to bend a little to contain matter, such as our twin, within the surface that is our timeline. Large amounts of time dilation could cause a space traveler to fall behind our universe's march forward through time to place him in another domain, or timeline. What might be found there is beyond this theory's ability to predict. There could be no matter there at all except what has been dragged down into it through black holes, or there could be one of many parallel universes to our own. This theory says black holes are created by the time dilation caused by high rotational speeds. See Article 17 for more on this theory's explanation of black holes.

Note that this theory doesn’t suggest the Earth is a “stationary point,” only that it, like most of the matter of the Universe, is traveling at a very tiny fraction of the speed of light compared to the “stationary points” it is passing through, so is subject to only extremely tiny amounts of time dilation. Even if the highly unlikely possibility were true that the Earth, along with the sun and our galaxy, had the very large speed with respect to the grid of “stationary points” of say 42,000 km/second, so that we had a Lorentz factor of 1.01 (1% of time dilation compared with some other place in place in the Universe), we would just experience it as being normal, anyway.

Our actual speed with respect to “stationary points” is likely to be much smaller than that. For instance, the solar system moves at a speed of about 400 km/s with respect to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB) rest frame (the same as the grid of “stationary points” of this theory?). The Lorentz factor of this speed, though, is only: 1.00000089 (which would cause about one second of time dilation each two weeks).



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