How Black Holes Create the Gravitational Anomaly “Dark Matter” Has Been Inferred From

The concavity in the fabric of space that forms rotationally caused black holes, discussed in the previous article, must turn to a convexity around its rim, where it merges back into the “flat” space around it, like one sees at the rim of some soup bowls. In the area of this gradually reducing convexity, which in the case of a supermassive black hole in the center of the galaxy could encompass most of the galaxy itself, the convexity would cause the paths of basic particles (BPs) to splay outward, and reduce the force of gravity on objects in the area. This attenuation of the force of gravity would be greatest fairly close to the center of the galaxy, and gradually reduce to close to zero out at the ends of the spiral arms, as you can see in the following diagram:

The effect of this would be to reduce the relative speed of stars orbiting close the center of a galaxy, and increase the relative speed of stars orbiting further out, so that they would have close to the same speed (giving the galaxy a 'flat rotational curve'), rather than the close in stars orbiting much faster than the far out ones, as one would expect from Newtonian gravity or General Relativity. This nicely explains Vera Rubin’s 1975 discovery that most stars in spiral galaxies orbit at roughly the same speed, and does so without the need to infer the existence of vast amounts of “dark matter.” Despite its supposed preponderance, and many years of effort, scientists have been unable to detect even a single particle of non-baryonic, non-neutrino dark matter. Universal Field Cosmology predicts it will never be detected in significant amounts because it can explain the gravitation anomalies in galaxies without it.

Universal Field Cosmology also explains why globular clusters don’t appear to have any dark matter: they don’t have rotationally caused black holes at their centers, since they don't rotate much, so the effect described here does not occur. Indeed globular clusters rarely, if ever, have any black holes in them, though it is possible that black holes caused by a different mechanism might occur in some. Some researchers have inferred the existence of black holes in a few large globular clusters, such as M15 and Mayall II. However, other researchers have pointed out that the sharp rise in the mass to light ratio toward the center of these clusters, that these black holes have been inferred from, can just as easily be explained by mass segregation following a core collapse.

This theory predicts that galaxies that don’t appear to have dark matter in them, such as the elliptical NGC 3379, will also turn out to not have rotationally caused supermassive black holes at their centers, and will tend not to be fast rotating spiral galaxies but rather slower rotating or non-rotating ones such as ellipticals. This is despite the apparent discovery of a supermassive black hole at the center of NGC 3379. This black hole has been inferred from the existence of high speed stars near the center of the galaxy. I would maintain, however, that to unequivocally infer the existence of a black hole one would need to track the paths of these high speed stars to show they are in tight orbits around the center of the galaxy, as has been done by Andrea Ghez with stars such as SO-2 in establishing the existence of a supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. It is known that the motion of stars in elliptical galaxies such as NGC 3379 is predominately radial rather than rotating in orbits around the center. Stars on radial paths passing close to the center of a huge galaxy could have been accelerating along a path starting right out near the periphery, and hense have gained very high speeds by the time they approach the center of the galaxy. As a result, the existence of high speed stars near the center of a galaxy is not sufficient to infer the existence of a black hole -- showing they are in tight orbits around the center is also necessary, and as far as I know this has not been done for NGC 3379. For this reason, and because it doesn't have a flat rotational curve (dark matter), this theory suggests the 'supermassive black hole' in NGC 3379 will prove to be either illusory or not rotationally caused.

One apparent problem for this theory is that the flat rotational curve of star speeds in spiral galaxies comes from an increase in speed of the stars further out, not from a decrease in speed of the stars further in, as this theory suggests. The answer to this, though, is that there must be suffucient mass and/or black-hole gravitational effect at the center of spiral galaxies to explain the speed of stars at the periphery, but that the increasing convexity of space as the "soup-bowl rim" of the black hole is approached reduces the gravitational attraction between stars, as this theory predicts, and causes their rotational speed to reduce to what we see closer to the center. This effect would cause us to under estimate the mass and/or black-hole gravitational effect near the centers of spiral galaxies when using traditional gravitational theories. This explanation, of spiral galaxies containing more central mass and/or black-hole gravitational effect than previously thought, also nicely explains the higher than expected gravitational lensing of clusters of galaxies, which has been used to infer the existence of dark matter.



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