Article 13: Structure of the Universe  Local Flattenings on a 4D Sphere
This is a supplementary article. To go to the main introductory article about Stationary Energy Theory, and its links to other supplementary articles, please click here.
This theory predicts local flattenings of the curvature of
the spherical universe which contain galaxy supercluster complexes
Within our part of our galaxy (LS), we know
there is a general movement of stars of about 630 km/s with
respect to the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB) rest frame. I have
already hinted that the CMB rest frame and the grid of “stationary points” of this
theory are one and the same thing, and I will formally propose it in a later article in this collection of articles. According to Stationary Energy Theory, this movement with respect to the rest frame means that there should be a certain small
amount of reduction in the rate of passing of time, as a result of this movement, compared
with other parts of the Universe that are at rest with respect to their
“stationary points.” Since the Universe is expanding in the time dimension, if the
rate of passing of time is reduced in a particular area of the Universe, in this way, then one would also expect that that area would have expanded less than the areas around it, and that its outward curve would be flattened somewhat, at least, and perhaps be largely or completely flattened or even be reduced to a concavity.
Let’s assume for the moment that we are a part of a
local area where the Universe has been totally flattened out so that it has no
curvature. The center of such an area would be where the speed is the greatest
and the edges would be where it is the least. Let's assume we are half way out from the
center of such an area, and we are moving at half the speed that the center is. We can then calculate how big this area of flattening is, based on
the current estimate that our galaxy is moving at a speed of 627 km/s with
respect to the rest frame. At the center of this flattened area, the speed would be twice our speed, or 1254 km/s. At this speed, this center's rate of passage through time
compared with the rate of passage through time of a place at rest, “T_{0}”, is given by
Equation 6 (from Article 2):
T = T_{0}(1  v²/c²)^{½}
Plugging in the values of v = 1254 km/s, and c = 299,792 km/s,
we get:
T = T_{0}(1 – 1254^{2}/299,800^{2})^{½}
= T_{0}(1
– 1,572,516/89,880,040,000)^{½}
= T_{0}(1 – 1.749571985 x 10^{5})^{½}
= T_{0}(0.99998250)^{½}
= T_{0}
x 0.999991252, so:
T =
0.999991252T_{0}
If this local slightly smaller rate of the expansion of the
Universe has been the same since the Big Bang, then the current radius of the
Universe at this point will be smaller than the general radius by the same
amount, so:
R =
0.999991252R_{0}
. . . . . . . (26)
As can be seen from the above discussion and calculations,
this theory predicts that the local geometry of the Universe, within supercluster complexes is “flat” to within about one part in 2,500
(the value of the “flatness factor”, “f”), but that the global geometry is “spherical” with little flat patches all over it — kind of like a golf ball if you filled its dimples in until they were flat. This agrees with the recent astronomical observations that suggest the local geometry of the Universe is flat to within ±0.5% (one part in 200). The Poincaré dodecahedral space, a model that apparently fits the data, is the closest prior model. This theory, however, predicts that the global geometry is that of a polyhedron with hundreds of thousands of “flat spots,” each probably about a degree across, or two degrees if they are “swirls.”
Not only does this theory explain why the local geometry of the universe is "flat" within the overall context of a spherical universe, but it also explains why galaxies are collected into superclusters of galaxies separated by voids: superclusters occupy the flat spots and the voids are the more curved regions between the flat spots. Negative gravity operating at much smaller distances in the curved areas between flat spots would have caused most matter to be expelled out of these areas into surrounding flat spots, which explains why these areas are voids.
If it doesn’t seem like hundreds of thousands of 2° “flat spots swirls” in their surrounding voids could fit on a sphere, bear in mind that we are talking about a 4D sphere here. The “bounding volume” of a 4D sphere is given by S_{3} = 2π²R³. Using this formula it turns out that this bounding volume could contain 464,095 2°width cubes, each of which could be home to a “flatspot swirl”. Assuming each of the 464,095 “flat spot swirls” contains an average of a Local Supercluster Complex’s worth of mass, the mass of the Universe would be about 4.6 × 10^{23} suns, or 9.2 ×10^{53} Kg.
Interesting, considering we calculated earlier that the mass of a “basic particle” is probably about 10^{53} kg. It seems like the macro and the micro in the Universe might be fairly evenly balanced.
Since a hydrogen atom weighs about 1.67 ×10^{27} Kg, this theory suggests there would be about 9.2 ×10^{53}/1.67 ×10^{27} = 5.5 ×10^{80} hydrogen atoms in the universe, if all the atoms were hydrogen. There are other heavier atoms, too, so we could say there would be about 5.0 ×10^{80} atoms in the universe. Since our visible universe is only about 20% of the whole universe, this means there should be about 10^{80} atoms in our visible universe.
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